Dr Zainab Khan wins at the Bristol Diversity Awards 2018

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Dr Zainab Khan picked up the award for Positive Role Model (Race / Ethnicity) at the 2nd Bristol Diversity Awards event on Saturday 18th May at the Mercure Holland Hotel & Spa.

Zainab was nominated for her work on the UWE Bristol Equity Programme.

Equity is a positive-action talent development programme aiming to improve BAME graduate outcomes  through identity coaching, enterprise education and large networking events.

It marks a major departure from traditional diversity practice in Higher Education, and has received  positive reception from external observers and city commentators for its innovation. You can find out more about the Equity Programme here

Prior to the event Zainab was interviewed for ITV’s local news to discuss the upcoming awards

Attending the awards were Equity student committee members, Donna Whitehead (Executive Dean & Pro Vice Chancellor), Dr Harriet Shortt (Associate Professor Bristol Business School), Mena Fombo (Motivational Speaker and Equity Programme Coach) and Alex Mormoris, former colleague and key member of the Equity Programme staff.

Congratulations to Zainab and the Equity team on this impressive achievement.

Centre for Applied Legal Research to present at SLSA Conference 2018 

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The Annual Conference of the Socio-Legal Scholars Association is one of the high points of the legal academic calendar, and this year UWE’s Centre for Legal Research will be out in force showcasing current research at “the other place”. Bristol University is hosting the conference this year from March 27 – 29.

Emma Whewell is presenting a paper in the mental health stream entitled “Pre-proceedings and capacity: the impact of professional language and other barriers on parents with learning disabilities”. Emma has undertaken research into pre-proceedings protocols in Family Law, and this paper will showcase some of her research. Laura Walker has done research on resilience and mental health, but for the SLSA she is presenting a paper in the Law and Emotion stream entitled “The Role of Empathy in the Sentencing of Women in England and Wales”, one of several papers from the Centre for Legal Research that looks at criminal justice either directly or indirectly.

Ed Johnston will be presenting his paper entitled “The Defence Lawyer in the Modern Era and the Evolving Criminal Trial” reporting on his research in the criminal justice field. He is not the only UWE researcher presenting on criminal justice topics as Professor Phil Rumney is chairing two panels in the Sexual Offences stream and is presenting a paper with Duncan McPhee (Criminology) entitled “Exploring the Impact of Multiple Victim Vulnerabilities on Rape Investigations in England and Wales”. Tom Smith will be reporting on a pilot study undertaken at the Bristol Magistrates Courts looking at the lack of local newspaper reporting of the courts. Tom will be presenting with Marcus Keppel-Palmer and the partners from the Journalism Department, Sally Reardon and Phil Chamberlain. An early report was made to the Society of Editors and quoted by John Whittingdale MP.

Looking at criminal offences in the context of sports law is Matt Hall who is presenting a paper based around his PhD research into the offences around alcohol and drunkenness at football stadia. Matt will be arguing the case for liberalising the laws which apply only in the context of football and not other sports. Matt will also be co-presenting a second paper in the Sports law stream with Marcus Keppel-Palmer reporting on their content analysis of sports photographs in national newspapers in a paper entitled “The Connoted Message of Sports Photography in National Newspapers”. Marcus will have a busy conference as he is also presenting a paper in the Law and Music stream entitled “Law, Outlaw and Deviancy in Bro Country”.

The week before Easter also sees the Association of Law Teachers Conference, to be held at Keele University, and amongst UWE’s researchers presenting papers there are Kathy Brown, Rachel Wood and Thomas Webber.

PSU Murder Mystery Fundraising Event – March 21

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On March 21, a group of MA Event Management students are hosting a networking event with a twist. Join them for their Murder Mystery Networking Evening for anyone in the legal profession.

You will team up with to solve crime, whilst widening your connections in the legal field.

While benefiting from meeting and connecting with new individuals, all profit generated from the event will be provided the legal charity

Personal Support Unit (PSU). The PSU help individuals in the Bristol area who are facing legal processes alone by assisting them to represent themselves effectively in civil and family cases and tribunals. You can read more about their work here.

For just £12, you will receive admission to the Murder Mystery Networking Evening, along with a welcome drink and nibbles.

Come along to get to know new people whilst competing against your colleagues and friends to solve the murder the fastest – there is a prize for the quickest team!

Register here or find out more information here .

 

Presentation of a Paper on Russia and International Law at a Symposium on Hybrid Warfare at the Swedish Defence University

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In the last few decades the concept of ‘hybrid warfare’ has gained prominence in international security studies. Although there is no agreed upon definition of hybrid warfare it can nonetheless be described as the simultaneous and synchronised use of different instruments of power – military, economic, information, civil, social, political, financial and legal – with the aim to destabilise an adversary. Historically, hybrid warfare was known as ‘asymmetric warfare’ and mainly carried out by non-State actors with weaker military forces who disregarded international legal norms, used terrorist tactics, were involved in organised criminal activities and conducted information warfare. Increasingly, States and military alliances such as NATO have adopted some of these multidimensional means of warfare in blended tactics. The security challenges arising from hybrid threats and wars are today high on the agenda, notably because no comprehensive approach explaining how hybrid wars and threats are to be handled has been advanced.

It was with this view that a symposium was organised by the Swedish Defence University (SEDU) in collaboration with the Centre for Conflict, Rule of Law and Society, Bournemouth University and the Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies at SEDU on 14-15 November 2017. Aimed at facilitating the production of new knowledge and the development of future cooperation the event gathered international practitioners and researchers discussing the contemporary challenges to the international security environment from a Swedish and international perspective. It was notable that participants from the USA, Sweden, Georgia, Estonia, Denmark, Finland, the UK, South Africa and Norway tried to address these challenges from a multidisciplinary research point of view.

A number of speakers at the Symposium focused on the use of hybrid warfare tactics by Russia. It is in this framework that Dr Noëlle Quénivet (Bristol Law School) presented a paper she had written in collaboration with Dr Sabine Hassler (Bristol Law School). This paper was in fact the further and logical development of a set of ideas that the two staff members of the Bristol Law School had advanced in a chapter for an edited collection on The Use of Force against Ukraine and International Law which is due to be published in April 2018. In this chapter Dr Hassler and Dr Quénivet argue that Russia was (and is) using nationality (understood in a wide sense of the term) as a political, economic, and cultural tool to justify expansionism in neighbouring States. Its use of nationality is commonly known in academic literature as ‘passportisation’.

This analysis, drawing on the experiences in the Baltics, Georgia, and Ukraine, have led Dr Hassler and Dr Quénivet to go a step further, examining whether passportisation is part of a wider policy and whether Russia is rewriting the post-1945 rules that are based on the sovereignty of States, the prohibition of the intervention in internal affairs, the prohibition of the threat of or the use of force, the principle of self-determination and the protection of human rights. Russia, so it seems, is using grey areas in international law to implement a policy whose legal implications are in breach of the key principles of the UN Charter relating to international peace and security. It is contended that the policies and tools (eg conferral of nationality, support for the right of self-determination, protection of nationals abroad, threshold of ‘armed attack’, etc) developed and used by Russia are not necessarily unlawful per se; they can indeed in some instances be justified under international law as they fall within its grey areas. That being said, the situations created as a result of this policy are often unlawful (eg recognition of a State that is part of the territory of another State, occupation and annexation, etc.).

Presentation - Stockholm

In this regard, it is particularly remarkable that in all its activities Russia is taking great care in providing legal justifications. Failing to be able to justify its actions, Russia simply denies its involvement. The key question is whether Russia is using the law and the grey legal areas to advance its own version of international law and thus contributes to delineating the norms of international law or whether it is incrementally testing the limits of international law with a view to modifying the post-1945 legal framework. Dr Hassler and Dr Quénivet argue that in fact Russia is not proposing a novel interpretation of international law; rather, it is testing to which extent some less established norms and practices in international law can be modified to suit its own purposes and interests. Here, Russia is acting much alike other States, trying to preserve its national security and territorial integrity. As a matter of fact this emphasis on State security and integrity reveals that Russia is keen on securing an old – based on military security – rather than a more contemporary – based on human and environmental security – interpretation of the post-1945 rules.

Pro Bono work at the Bristol Law School

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Original post taken from the Research, Business and Innovation blog .

Author: Jeremy Allen 

Whilst at UWE Bristol, students studying within the Bristol Law School and Bristol Business School have the opportunity to get involved in a variety of projects from supporting local residents in dealing with community issues to providing free legal advice and assistance to members of the public.

UWE’s Pro Bono work has also helped communities in Uganda and the United States, as well as making a large impact on communities and businesses in the Bristol region.

Undergrad and postgrad students provide all manner of unpaid assistance to businesses, and individuals who have limited access to legal help.

Associate Head of Department – Pro Bono and Law Lecturer Marcus Keppel Palmer commented:

“In this day and age, with the lack of governmental help, Universities who can assist are expected to do so. We have a repository of knowledge, expertise, and students who are keen to acquire experience.”

The numerous voluntary activities, which are led and developed by the students themselves, include the following:

Courts

Offered to individuals with no legal representation, the Law Court Clinics involve Bar students providing on-the-spot assistance to those with no prior knowledge of court proceedings. For two days a week, the postgraduates provide the service alongside a charity at the Bristol Civil Justice Centre. In the same vein, LIP Service (referring to ‘litigants in person’), which UWE Bristol is a part of, raises awareness for those representing themselves, in advance of their hearing. Undergraduates offer training on what to expect in court, what defendants can and cannot ask/do during proceedings, and how to present a case.

Welfare/ Benefits support

In collaboration with a number of charities and organisations, student volunteers help individuals with the wording in their claims forms to maximise success in receiving or retaining benefits. Legal advice is also provided if an appeal is required,  following an unsuccessful claim.

“If your disability benefits are cut, then you can’t afford a lawyer to challenge that, let alone access legal aid because it’s been cut in this area,”

Marcus Keppel Palmer

This work on appeal claims yields almost 100% successful.

Mentoring and Street Law

With a view to helping school pupils learn more about studying Law, first year students from the Law department provide mentoring at schools and colleges in the Bristol area. Pupils can also attend mock trials held at the Bristol Business School’s court rooms.

“This Pro Bono activity provides UWE students with additional skills such as public speaking or team work,” says Keppel-Palmer.

Private clients – Elder Law

Teaming up with charities such as Paul’s Place, undergraduate students from Bristol Business School’s law department offer assistance on matters concerning wills, probate and power of attorney.

Businesses

The business school’s Business Advice Clinics involves students providing basic one-to-one accountancy, marketing and legal support for graduate start-ups in Launch Space, UWE Bristol’s graduate incubation space. One accountancy and four law firms assist with this activity.

“This provides top quality advice to the Launch Space incubators and, for students, networking opportunities with the firms,” says Keppel-Palmer.

Pro Bono business activities also extend to helping musicians get a foothold in the music industry, where legal knowledge carries weight. BMAS is a system of clinics and one-to-ones run by law students who meet with budding musicians and other creatives from all over the world. The free legal service includes advice on publishing deals, contracts etc.

Crime

Pro Bono work has also enabled volunteers to work with countries in East Africa. With a focus on Kenya and Uganda, the African Prisons Project encourages prisoners to study Law to understand their legal rights. The service enables inmates to be in a stronger position to challenge their cases.

The Anti Death-Penalty Group is aimed at students interested in crime and criminology. This activity enables them to raise awareness about death row by working with a law firm in Virginia (US), where undergraduates can also attend a five-week summer placement. Some have worked on cases involving Guantanamo Bay.

“They often come back transformed after meeting death row inmates,” says Keppel-Palmer.

Community Asset Transfer

Closer to home, postgraduate law students offer free legal assistance in projects involving the takeover of public assets by charities. These are long-running projects and the University usually takes on one a year.

“All these activities provide incalculable benefits for students,” says Keppel-Palmer. “Many find themselves more confident and find that they get jobs out of them. There are also massive amounts of good will generated through the work that is done and that makes people feel good in themselves.”

To find out more about the Pro Bono work that takes place within the Bristol Law School and Bristol Business School please contact Marcus Keppel Palmer :Marcus.Keppel-Palmer@uwe.ac.uk

Bristol Business School and Bristol Law School Research Showcase

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Bristol Business School and Bristol Law School invite you to their Research Showcase on Wednesday 11 October at the Bristol Business School.

The showcase will celebrate the breadth of research within both schools in Leadership, Operations, Economic Analysis, Law, Legal Policy and Reform, Marketing, Enterprise, Entrepreneurship and Human Resource Management.

Throughout the showcase there will be 16 workshops taking place that will demonstrate the ways our leading edge researchers achieve real world impact, advanced knowledge, inspire people and transform futures.

The schedule for the day is as follows:

14.15 – 14.50: Registration & Refreshments, Atrium

15.00 – 15.10: Welcome Speech, lecture Theatre, 2X112

15.15 – 15.50: Showcase, Lecture Theatre, 2X112

15.55 – 16.25: Workshop 1, Assorted Rooms

16.35 – 17.05: Workshop 2, Assorted Rooms

17.10 – 18.00: Networking, Atrium

The workshops on offer are:

Workshop 1 (15:55 – 16:25)

  • Improving health and wellbeing through leadership and behaviour change – Bristol Leadership and Change Centre. In order to attend please register via Eventbrite.
  • Creating Connections: The Entrepreneurial Mind-set and Ecosystem – Bristol Collaborative Entrepreneurship Research Group. In order to attend please register via Eventbrite.
  • Rights, Citizenship and Nationality – Centre for Applied Legal Research. In order to attend please register via Eventbrite.
  • Financial Crime – Centre for Applied Legal Research. In order to attend please register via Eventbrite.
  • The Changing Terrain of Employability and Careers – Human Resources, Work and Employment Research. In order to attend please register via Eventbrite.
  • Delivering Value – How new technology continues to drive Business Model evolution – Innovation, Operations Management and Supply. In order to attend please register via Eventbrite.
  • Working Effectively With Marketing Agencies – Applied Marketing Group; Rigorous Research, Impact on Practice. In order to attend please register via Eventbrite.
  • Five things you should know about modern financial systems and the economy – Bristol Centre for Economics and Finance. In order to attend please register via Eventbrite.

Workshop 2 (16:35 – 17:05)

  • Digital marketing: what everyone needs to know? – Applied Marketing Group; Rigorous Research, Impact on Practice. In order to attend please register via Eventbrite.
  • Creative approaches to leadership and organisation development – Bristol Leadership and Change Centre. In order to attend please register via Eventbrite.
  • Entrepreneurial Approaches to ‘Wicked’ or Intractable Problems – Bristol Collaborative Entrepreneurship Research Group. In order to attend please register via Eventbrite.
  • Criminal Justice – Centre for Applied Legal Research. In order to attend please register via Eventbrite.
  • Delivering Value – How new technology continues to drive Business Model evolution – Innovation, Operations Management and Supply. In order to attend please register via Eventbrite.
  • Law, Vulnerability and Protection – Centre for Applied Legal Research. In order to attend please register via Eventbrite.
  • Applying research to address policy issues – Bristol Centre for Economics and Finance. In order to attend please register via Eventbrite.
  • Contemporary issues in reward management – Human Resources, Work and Employment Research. In order to attend please register via Eventbrite.

More information about the event and registration can be found here.

Student blog post: On the Basis of the Article ‘Trump Trade: What He Can Do Legally Vs. Nafta, China, Mexico’ of 15 January 2017, Discuss Whether and How it is Possible under WTO Rules to Protect one’s Industry.

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Author: Jefferson Elsdon 

This post (edited for publication) is contributed to our blog as part of a series of work produced by students for assessment within the module ‘Public International Law’. We offer this module in the second year of Bristol Law School’s LLB programme. It is led by Associate Professor Dr Noelle Quenivet. Learning and teaching on the module includes the use of online portfolios within a partly student led curriculum. The posts in this series show the outstanding research and analytical abilities of students on our programmes. Views expressed in this blog post are those of the author only who consents to the publication.

The above mentioned article, written while Trump was still president-elect, discusses which protectionist measures he might implement during his administration to strengthen the US economy.

This video outlines the basic concepts of protectionism. It is possible to protect one’s industry ‘as long as doing so does not violate any commitments they have made in the WTO Agreement’ (Herdegen, Principles of International Economic Law (OUP 2013) 196). Protectionist measures are heavily restricted under the WTO Agreement; if they were not so, stronger economies would make better use of them to the detriment of weaker economies.

It has been suggested Trump will impose a unilateral tax on Mexican imports after President Peña Nieto said Mexico, the US’ third largest trading partner, would not pay for Trump’s proposed border wall. However, Trump is not solely preoccupied about keeping illegal immigrants out but also bringing jobs back in as many companies have moved production from the US to Mexico for cheaper labour, leaving many American workers unemployed.

In this blog, I will discuss how Mexico can enforce restrictions to defend its car industry against two protectionist measures Trump might implement: imposing tariffs and lowering the corporate tax rate.

Restrictions

The principle of non-discrimination ‘ensures equal conditions in competition on national markets’ (Herdegen, Principles of International Economic Law (OUP 2013) 55). This has two ramifications:

1) The most favoured nation (MFN) clause, protected under article I GATT, guarantees that if one party to a treaty is afforded special benefits, other parties should also be afforded such.

2) National treatment, protected under article III GATT, ensures that imported like products are taxed the same as domestic products, and directly competitive and substitutable products are similarly taxed (Japan – Alcoholic Beverages II).

Imposing Tariffs

Imposing tariffs on imported cars might tempt American companies to move production back to the US to avoid such.

The US and Mexico are parties to the free trade agreement, NAFTA; therefore, when it comes to tariffs, the US will be subject to that agreement rather than GATT (NAFTA, article 103(1). ‘Member states can impose tariffs on goods, but only to the extent of the rate they have agreed upon’ (Qureshi and Ziegler, International Economic Law (Sweet and Maxwell 2011) 355). Under NAFTA, there are no tariffs on car imports whose parts are of at least 62.5% North American origin (annex 302.2 and article 403(5) NAFTA), therefore, if this requirement is satisfied, Trump cannot impose tariffs.

Trump wants to renegotiate NAFTA and has even threatened to walk away from it which he could do by giving Mexico and Canada six months’ notice and Congress would not be able to stop him but, even then, Trump could only impose a 4% tariff on Mexican imports, the current MFN rate in the US (article I GATT). Furthermore, Trump would not be able to impose a tax on cars produced in Mexico in excess of that imposed on cars produced domestically (article III:2 GATT).

If Trump were to impose tariffs on Mexico after walking away from NAFTA, the only realistic option Mexico would have to safeguard its economy would be to return the favour and impose tariffs on US imports. This is not to be confused with countervailing duties which can only be implemented to offset the effects of subsidisation (article VI GATT). Though this option might soften the blow, it is still unsatisfactory as Mexico is more dependent on the US than the US is on Mexico, therefore, as Mexico imports more of its goods to the US than vice versa, it will naturally suffer a greater detriment. One might suggest that Mexico could raise its tariffs to neutralise this detriment but that is not possible. Firstly, like the US, Mexico has to afford the most favoured nation treatment when imposing tariffs; therefore, it is restricted by the MFN rate current in Mexico. Secondly, as imposing tariffs is not a form of subsidisation, Mexico would not be at liberty to countervail such so as to completely offset any detriment. Regardless, even if it were possible to completely offset any detriment, no one would be better off; if anything, things would get worse as the increase in car prices would result in lower sales, a decrease in share prices and higher unemployment.

Lowering the Corporate Tax Rate

Unlike imposing tariffs, lowering the corporate tax rate is an incentive for companies to return to the US, hoping they will create more jobs and boost GDP. The problem is lowering the corporate tax rate could be construed as an indirect form of subsidisation.

Subsidies exist where there is ‘any form of income or price support … and a benefit is thereby conferred’ (article 1 ASCM). Although funds are not positively conferred, lowering tax would qualify as a form of price support as companies would be saving money, therefore, a subsidy would exist.

Again, Mexico could defend itself by imposing countervailing duties on US imports (article VI GATT). This would set off the effects of a lower corporate tax rate and hopefully persuade American companies to continue the production in Mexico as moving production back to the US would make them no better off and the cost of doing so would make them lose more money than they would save. The problem is that the US is Mexico’s largest trading partner; therefore, the Mexican economy is heavily dependent upon the US market. Although countervailing duties would set off the effects of lowering the corporate tax rate, companies in the US could earn more profit by increasing trade with markets which have not imposed countervailing duties and decreasing trade with those which have which could seriously impair the Mexican economy.

In summary, there is very little Mexico can do to defend itself against protectionist measures implemented by the US, the world’s largest economy, without harming itself.

 

UWE Bristol moves up three places in the Times Good University Guide

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The University of the West of England has risen three places to 57th position in the Times Good University Guide.

UWE Bristol is ranked fifth in the South West in the annual guide. The university is also top in the South West for student experience and second for teaching excellence based on the outcome of the National Student Survey figures for 2017.

Responding to the improvement in the rankings Professor Steve West, UWE Bristol President and Vice-Chancellor, said, “We are very pleased to see that we are moving forward in the right direction. Staff and students have strived over the past year to work towards making UWE Bristol an even greater place to study.

“We are among the top rated modern universities in the league table. We have invested heavily in our learning environment and seen the launch of two major buildings including the Bristol Business School and new animation and film-making studios in the past year.

“At UWE Bristol we pride ourselves on our employability results. Earlier this year the Higher Education Statistical Agency (HESA) showed we were ahead of all West Universities for employment and further study of students who graduated in 2016.

“We want to be a top 50 University by 2020 and our ambitious strategy to become the best university for practice based learning is absolutely taking shape. I would like to say a big thank you to our incredibly hard working staff who have helped us to move forward towards this goal.”

The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide 2018 published on 24 September, provides students and their parents with an invaluable first reference point on the path to finding a university place. It contains full profiles of all universities. The league table is made up of nine indicators including student satisfaction with teaching quality and their wider student experience, research quality, graduate prospects, entrance qualifications held by new students, degree results achieved, student/staff ratios, service and facilities spend, and degree completion rates.

Awards nominations for the LiP Service team from the Pro Bono Unit at Bristol Law School and three Bristol Law School students

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The LiP Service team which is part of the Pro-bono unit at the Bristol Law School has been nominated for Team of the Year at the Bristol Law Society Awards. In addition to that, three Bristol Law School students have been nominated for student of the year.

The LiP Service team was founded after Lawyers from Bristol University, University of Law and UWE Bristol realised they were replicating work by all chasing the same aim. The LiP Service tries to explain the loss of Legal Aid and general access to justice; which has led to many people not understanding the legal justice process and reluctant to access it alone. The service assists litigants in person with orientation around the Bristol Civil Justice Centre and with information about how to conduct their cases.

The District Judge, Stephanie Cope, who supports the project is a UWE alumnus and involves the local Judiciary and Ministry of Justice staff in supporting the project.

The collaboration between Bristol Law School staff and students, and those from Bristol University and the University of Law is a shining example of a collaborative network between educational institutions, voluntary organisations and the Law Centres in Bristol. This is a great example of Universities and the Courts coming together to benefit the local community. The teams’ hard work has not gone unnoticed and they have been shortlisted for the Team of the Year in the Bristol Law Society Annual Awards.

There are also three students from Bristol Law School that have been shortlisted for the Law Student of the Year Award. This is the first time no student from University of Law, BPP or Bristol University have made the shortlist. This is a spectacular achievement and speaks volumes for the standard of our students.

The three students are:

  • Rachel Chapman (BPTC)
  • Brooke Lewis (LLB)
  • Tish Weavor – Marron (LLB)

The awards will be announced on the 19th October at a Gala dinner. Congratulations to Rachel, Brooke, Tish and the LiP Service team on this great achievement.

 

UWE Staff Attends SLS Workshop on Brexit and the Law School (South West)

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On 10 July 2017 Christian Dadomo and Dr Noëlle Quénivet attended a workshop organised by Dr Albert Sanchez Graells at the University of Bristol to discuss the impact of Brexit on Law Schools in the South West. The event which was supported by the Society for Legal Scholars (SLS) was attended by academics from the University of Bristol, the University of Exeter, South Bank University as well as UWE and by a student representative of the University of Bristol. Other similar regional workshops have been held around the country (for the reports, see here). Prior to that the Law School of the University of Bristol which acted as the lead for this meeting had carried out a survey amongst colleagues at the above mentioned institutions as well as at the University of Aberystwyth, Bournemouth, Cardiff, Gloucester, Plymouth, Swansea and the University of South Wales. Further information on this is available on the SLS website.

The discussions during the meeting focused on three areas: research, teaching and scholarly community with a view to identifying specific impacts derived from Brexit.

With regard to research it was noted that Brexit had created opportunities for researchers and increased opportunities for law academics to engage with the public. Brexit has also led a number of academics to get more involved with Parliament as a way to assist the State in the negotiations. In relation to funding it was observed that whilst some funding institutions have set up specific funds these are short-lived. Academics expressed their concern at the potential loss of EU funding opportunities and the concomitant competition to obtain funding at national level. Commercially-oriented research is seen as a potential opportunity all the more as academics appear to have a better and more holistic understanding of some Brexit issues. Whilst it was suggested that they should increase their engagement with eg law firms, it was noted that the current legal uncertainty hampers the provision of appropriate and relevant legal support at the moment.

Although a sudden surge in the number of students in optional EU law modules and/or programmes that focus on international and EU law was observed, it is likely to be short-lived and only contingent on the current political/legal context. In the long run students might shun away from such optional modules/programmes. In contrast, LLM programmes in EU law have suffered with a drop in the number of applications and might not be able to recover as there is competition from EU universities offering similar degrees taught in English language. Brexit has already had an impact on teaching, in particular in core modules such as Public Law and EU Law in which the current developments have been integrated. Arrangements are also in place to ensure updated delivery as the Article 50 negotiations unfold. Whether EU law will remain a core module on the LLB is unknown. Whilst Brexit will no doubt have an influence on the law curriculum the introduction of the SQE is more likely to have an even bigger impact. In general, there is consensus that EU law will remain an important subject and that it needs to be taught, either as a self-standing or in the context of a broader trade/international economic law module. Academics expressed their concerns that the ERASMUS programme might not be in existence anymore unless a deal is struck with the EU. The UK greatly benefits from this programme as it is the first country of destination and welcomes 130,000 students every year. Generally, Brexit has already had an effect on the number of EU students coming to the UK to study. The lack of certainty relating to the level of tuition fees, the opportunity to apply for funding on a par with UK nationals, the possibility that visas or other forms of proofs of right to remain be required are all playing against current recruitment strategies. Also, retaining international openness and outlook is key to retaining student numbers.

Overall, Brexit has negatively impacted the morale in law schools and the continued uncertainty creates difficult issues for both staff and students. It was mooted that legal academics from EU27 might wish to pursue their career outside the UK which would lead to a brain drain effect. Universities have shown high-level commitment to keeping internationalisation and diversity as core goals. Yet, the existing legal uncertainty seems to limit what they can practically do for staff and students at this stage.