Climate-adapted, traditional or cottage-garden planting? How acceptable is ‘climate ready’ planting to the public, and what drives these reactions?

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By Helen Hoyle…..

The UN COP 26 2021 Climate Conference heightened public awareness of the need to act now to mitigate the climate crisis. This in turn precipitates a call to ‘futureproof’ cities by introducing resilient urban green infrastructure compatible with future climates. Yet how do the public respond to ‘climate-ready’ planting in public places, when this may be unfamiliar and very different aesthetically to native vegetation? My earlier research indicated strong public support for the introduction of aesthetically exotic, climate-adapted planting in public parks and gardens, particularly if it was better adapted to the changing climate than traditionally-used species, yet understanding of the values underlying this acceptance, and the socio-cultural drivers of people’s perceptions, was lacking. Matthew Pottage, the Curator of RHS Wisley, was also keen to know more about public attitudes to climate-adapted planting, having recently (2017) introduced an Exotic Garden at Wisley. Incorporating species such as dramatic cannas with large vibrant orange flowers, and Chinese dwarf bananas, this is an innovative experiment to gauge the response of exotic planting to the UK climate.

Our research at Wisley involved a comparative study of public reactions to three contrasting garden styles: the exotic, an informal, English cottage-garden style, with a wilder aesthetic, incorporating familiar native species such as foxgloves, geraniums and roses, and a traditional, English formal style of planting in blocks, incorporating plant species both native and non-native to the UK such as the dahlia, rose, and clematis.

The three contrasting garden styles at RHS Wisley, Surrey

We asked:

  • What is the key driver of people’s perceptions in relation to aesthetics, self-reported restorative effect, and plant and invertebrate biodiversity: planting style or socio-cultural variability?
  • What are the socio-cultural drivers of people’s held values in relation to climate change, the introduction of non-native species, and nature-connectedness?
  • Do the perceptions and values of people with a personal interest or professional involvement in landscape, horticulture or the environment diverge from those of other members of the public?

The research was conducted on-site at RHS Wisley, Surrey, UK. Members of the public were invited to walk through one specific area of planting. We wanted people to report their own responses to engaging directly with the planting, because “the environment is experienced rather than simply looked at” (Ittleson, 1973). The questionnaire addressed participants’ perceptions of the aesthetics, biodiversity and how mentally restorative it was to walk through the planting, participants’ beliefs and values including climate-change awareness and nature-connectedness, and participants’ socio-demographic characteristics.

The Exotic Garden, most preferred aesthetically, incorporates dramatic cannas with large vibrant orange flowers, and Chinese dwarf bananas,

Our findings revealed that:

  • Aesthetically, the exotic climate-adapted planting was preferred over other two styles, whereas the cottage-garden style was perceived as the least attractive to walk through, significantly less so than other two styles
  • In contrast, the cottage-garden style was found to be the most mentally restorative to walk through
  • Members of the public accurately perceived lower levels of native biodiversity perceived in the exotic climate-adapted garden-style
  • There was a direct relationship between climate change awareness and participants’ educational qualifications. Those with no formal qualifications had significantly lower awareness of the implications of climate change than other participants.
Although perceived as the least attractive garden, the Cottage Garden was the most mentally restorative to walk through

We also found that:

  • Participants who were professionally involved landscape, horticulture or the environment perceived lower aesthetic value, restorative effect, and native biodiversity for the planting overall than non-professionals
  • Those with a personal interest enjoyed the aesthetics of nature more intensely and had stronger climate change concerns than other participants.

Our findings inform policy and practice towards the realisation of environmentally and socially sustainable urban green infrastructure in public parks, gardens and greenspaces. That participants expressed a significantly higher aesthetic preference for the Exotic, (climate-adapted) Garden over the other two garden styles provides further evidence of public support for this unfamiliar style of planting, a positive transferable finding informing policymakers and land-managers seeking to ‘futureproof’ cities by introducing climate-adapted UGI in parks and gardens. Nevertheless, the cottage-garden style, perceived as the least attractive, was considered the most mentally restorative to walk through. This provides further evidence that different stimuli elicit contrasting responses in the public. Landscape planners and designers should draw from these findings to inform practice on the ground, also providing opportunities for restoration amongst familiar, naturalistic planting in public parks. When planning and designing culturally acceptable urban green infrastructure, professionals should also be mindful of the divergence of their own perceptions and preferences from those of the wider public. That we identified significantly lower levels of climate change awareness amongst people with no formal qualifications is a striking finding. It highlights a need to consider novel science-communication strategies to transcend formal educational channels if the public is to be better informed about the challenges of climate change and their implications for urban green infrastructure. This will also broaden understanding of the positive potential for climate-adapted urban green infrastructure to deliver ‘futureproofing’ benefits for climate-change mitigation and human mental wellbeing.

You can read the full open access paper here.

Thank you to Matthew Pottage for the opportunity to conduct this research at RHS Wisley.

The Art of Healing: arts-led research to support child wellbeing in Kashmir.

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by Michael Buser…..

Kashmir – set in northern region of the Indian subcontinent – encompasses territories administered by India, Pakistan and China.  The region has long been contested and fought over (India and Pakistan have fought three wars over the territory) and is considered to be one of the most militarised areas in the world.  In the Kashmir Valley, in places like Srinagar and Pulwama, where our research team is working, everyday life is marked by the presence of military, curfews, stone-pelting, demonstrations and violence. Like most of the world, Kashmir has been under various forms of restrictions (e.g., school closures) due to Covid-19. Yet, the lockdown in Kashmir started in August 2019 when the Indian government amended the constitutional provisions and special status which allowed a level of autonomy for this Muslim majority state. Children have been particularly impacted by these events – many young people will have experienced trauma and live in a state of uncertainty and fear.

I have been involved in organising a diverse group to provide support to young people who live in Pulwama – an area that has been the centre of clashes between the army and militants (including a 2019 attack on a military convoy that resulted in 21 deaths).  Our team is funded through the Arts and Humanities Research Council’s ‘Urgency’ programme and ‘Global Challenges Research Fund’ and includes an amazing collection of dedicated people – including UK and Indian-based artists and film-makers as well as experts in public and child health, psychology and arts-based therapy, and international politics.  We are collaborating with a local school whose enthusiastic and caring teachers and administrators have integrated arts activities into the school’s curriculum. 

Children have been working through the ‘land of colours’ as a way of exploring a number of themes including happiness, suffering, heroism, and compassion

Over the past several months, we have been working with about 30 children ages 11 to 15 to support their wellbeing through a range of art-based therapy and arts activities.  These have been delivered online and face-to-face (the school is mostly closed, yet some activities are taking place on campus).  My colleague Anurupa Roy has been leading on the online activities with the children which has led to an amazing outpouring of creative work. This has all been accomplished through lockdowns, internet cut-offs, bandwidth restrictions, and all kinds of technological and political challenges.

Delivery of the in-person activities has also been extremely challenging. I thought this could be best expressed by quoting some words from Vikramjeet Sinha, an arts-based therapist working with the children.  

The breath-taking natural, brutal beauty of Kashmir, the lovely eyes of the children when they speak … keeps me at it and whatever the challenges I face, the children are worth it for they are so sweet. The first week there was a grenade blast on our way back in the evening, and even though it was not a close shave, I could not let the peaceful natural beauty delude me that things are peaceful. Civilians were killed in the blast and during these times the internet often gets cut off and any other zoom call with the world becomes an impossibility. Municipal elections at Pulwama kept the internet off for two days, such unprecedented things often happen out here.

Vikram’s reflections draw attention to some of the difficulties of working on the project – but also, how it is so fulfilling.  For my part, I am honoured to be part of this work and extremely grateful to be an academic who can direct energy and support to the wellbeing of people living in such difficult circumstances.  From this perspective, I have been disappointed to see news about the UK government’s decision to reduce the overseas aid budget from 0.7 to 0.5 per cent of gross national income.  Not only are programmes like the GCRF funded through development assistance, but as many others have said, these cuts will have real impacts on the lives of people at risk in areas of the world where support is needed.

At the end of the first round of work, the children gave a shadow puppet performance.  This image shows one of the sets constructed for the show.
 

Going forward we are continuing with online activities with the expectation of some face-to-face (Covid safe!) work in Pulwama in March.  At this stage, we are enjoying watching the artwork emerge – they have produced some spectacular pieces (a few of which I’ve included here).  We are also noting how the children are expressing themselves and allowing their inner worlds to become unlocked through the therapeutic experience of the arts.   

If anyone has any comments or questions, please get in touch: Michael.Buser@uwe.ac.uk

You’re not alone…overcoming isolation on the distance learning journey

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…By Nick Croft

“Cinders, you shall go to the ball…!”

The world has changed, significantly, since publishing our paper[1] a decade ago on student isolation in distance learning. At that time university distance learning programmes via the internet were still seen as something novel, innovative, unusual, maybe even a little odd – a venture viewed as largely residing in the domain of the Open University rather than more conventional physical campus-based establishments. Despite rhetoric around a desire to increase provision of this ‘flexible’ format it felt like a Cinderella approach amongst largely traditional face-to-face taught delivery.

With University education currently in a very different place, online study being the default approach, it seems opportune to reflect on what we’ve learnt about the ‘pumpkin to stagecoach’ transformation of distance learning.

Summary of the paper’s findings

  • Isolation and connectivity – although there’s no physical (geographical) connection this shouldn’t mean that the learning experience is a “solo mission”.
  • Tutor contact – students not knowing the extent to which tutors on different modules will engage and interact with them creates an uncertain learning environment and a mixed experience. Building a positive student/tutor relationship is key to overcome this.
  • Interaction with peers and colleagues – the ability to “bounce ideas off each other” helps to build a cohort, so facilitating the opportunity to do this is important. Linking study with practice (through workplace activities) can strengthen the purpose behind the learning experience.
  • Motivation and self-discipline – motivation to study can be difficult for those learning remotely from their peers. Setting targets, both embedded within the course and by the students themselves, is an important motivational factor, particularly where other external factors are present, such as work-home life balance.
  • Material and delivery – keeping material up to date and relevant is essential (for a vocational subject such as Planning this means providing a clear link to practice).
One of the findings boards from the 2010 research ‘sandpit’ event

Previously, back in the 1980s and 90s, distance learning involved paper copies of all reading material being posted to students, jokingly referred to as arriving on pallets – but it is true that entire store cupboards were devoted to reams of photocopied booklets. Then, with the arrival of the internet, paper was replaced by pages of online text requiring seemingly endless scrolling.  But effective distance learning, that meaningfully engages with its learners, requires more than this. And it goes beyond simply placing lecture capture online and providing resources for students to read asynchronously. Practical activities that engage the cohort and reinforce the learning need to be embedded within delivery.

This helps because students like to be reassured that their understanding of both the subject content as well as university processes are correct. Reassurance can take many forms, but the ability to speak to, and see, your tutor each week can play an important part – practical module-related tasks can contribute to this. The current use of Blackboard Collaborate software for meeting students in groups has helped significantly[2].

Redundant paper filing cabinets – a new world of desktop learning and teaching awaits.

Mutual reassurance between students also plays a crucial role. It can be difficult not having a friend/colleague sitting at the next desk, or across the table in the canteen, to bounce ideas off. What did the lecturer say about…? How did that theory the lecturer was talking about relate to your workplace? What format do we present the coursework in? I heard on the news that X happened, do you think this links with that lecture last week?

Since the paper’s publication we’ve tried numerous ways to create a defined ‘space’ in which discussion between students can occur to aid self-constructed learning. The most successful of these so far, judging by students’ comments, has been an interactive platform called Piazza[3]. This is aided by a keen, able and proactive Student Representative providing: a student-to-student link; a bridge connecting students and tutors; and a means of facilitating communication between the professional accrediting body[4] and the student cohort.

Additionally, we found that ensuring students feel the staff team are out there is essential – whether in a shared space or some other means of contact, knowing they can reach out and (within a reasonable timescale) will get something back. By adopting a memorandum of understanding that all module tutors are willing to follow it provides a baseline delivery standard to help create consistency and manage student (and tutor!) expectations. That said, commonality between modules is not necessarily the issue, it is more about students understanding how modules will work and having an equivalency in the quality of the experience. Taking the programme delivery team with you on the journey reduces the potential for a bumpy ride.

We’ve learnt a lot since the early days. Starting in September 2020 UWE launches a new online MSc in Planning and Urban Leadership[5]. Whilst the challenges identified back in 2010 still remain, and are potentially amplified by the current lockdown measures, taking students and tutors on the journey will be crucial to its success. Our delivery strategy incorporates understanding gained from interviewing alumni as well as feedback received in relation to current distance learning programme delivery.

Despite the passage of time our initial findings still hold resonance and, having recently passed the 100 citations milestone[6], combined with a necessary increase in remote learning, it seems Cinders shall go to the ball…


[1] Croft N., Dalton A. and Grant M. (2010) Overcoming Isolation in Distance Learning: Building a Learning Community through Time and Space, Journal for Education in the Built Environment, 5:1, 27-64

[2] It can also help to contribute towards the audit trail for student engagement in Degree Apprenticeship programmes. Other similar software is used for tutor meetings and more informal interaction such as Zoom, Microsoft Teams, WhatsApp, Skype, Facebook Messenger.

[3] Concerns about data protection precluded the use of Piazza for our 2019 cohort.

[4] For the programmes referred to here the Royal Town Planning Institute’s Partnership Board is responsible for accrediting the programme and ensuring an effective and functional Planning School.

[5] https://courses.uwe.ac.uk/K4062/planning-and-urban-leadership-distance-learning [accessed 22/5/20]

[6] Google Scholar identifies 101 citation references of the paper [accessed 23/5/20]