Facial recognition technology aims to detect emotional state in pigs

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Featured researcher: Professor Melvyn Smith

State-of-the-art facial recognition technology is being used in an attempt to detect different emotional states in pigs.

Machine vision experts at the University of the West of England (UWE Bristol) have teamed up with animal behaviourists from Scotland’s Rural College (SRUC) in Edinburgh for the study, which it is hoped will lead to a tool that can monitor individual animals’ faces and alert farmers to any health and welfare problems.

Pigs are highly expressive and SRUC research has previously shown they can signal their intentions to other pigs using different facial expressions. There is also evidence of different expressions when they are in pain or under stress.

At SRUC’s Pig Research Centre in Midlothian, scientists are capturing 3D and 2D facial images of the breeding sow population under various, typical commercial situations that are likely to result in different emotional states. For example, sows can experience lameness and could show different facial expressions relating to pain before and after being given pain relief. Detecting positive emotional state is more novel but sows are highly food motivated and appear calm and content when satiated. They hope this mood could be reflected in sows facial expressions.

Images are then processed at UWE Bristol’s Centre for Machine Vision, where various state-of-the-art machine learning techniques are being developed to automatically identify different emotions conveyed by particular facial expressions. After validating these techniques, the team will develop the technology for on-farm use with commercial partners where individual sows in large herds will be monitored continuously.

Professor Melvyn Smith from UWE Bristol’s Centre for Machine Vision, part of the Bristol Robotics Laboratory, said: “Machine vision technology offers the potential to realise a low-cost, non-intrusive and practical means to biometrically identify individual animals on the farm. Our work has already demonstrated a 97% accuracy at facial recognition in pigs. Our next step will be, for the first time, to explore the potential for using machine vision to automatically recognise facial expressions that are linked with core emotion states, such as happiness or distress, in the identified pigs.”

Dr Emma Baxter from SRUC said: “Early identification of pig health issues gives farmers the potential to improve animal wellbeing by tackling any problems quickly and implementing tailored treatment for individuals. This will reduce production costs by preventing impact of health issues on performance.

“By focussing on the pig’s face, we hope to deliver a truly animal-centric welfare assessment technique, where the animal can “tell” us how it feels about its own individual experiences and environment. This allows insight into both short-term emotional reactions and long-term individual ‘moods’ of animals under our care.”

The study, which is being funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), is also being supported by industry stakeholders JSR Genetics Ltd and Garth Pig Practice as well as precision livestock specialists Agsenze.

Featured researcher: Professor Melvyn Smith

Melvyn L. Smith is Professor of Machine Vision and Director of the Centre for Machine Vision (CMV) at UWE Bristol. He is also a Chartered Engineer and an active member of the IET.  

Email: Melvyn.Smith@uwe.ac.uk Phone: +4411732 86358

Notes and links for editors:
https://bbsrc.ukri.org/research/

Relevant papers:

Hansen, M.F., Smith, M.L., Smith, L.N., Salter, M.G., Baxter, E.M., Farish, M. and Grieve, B., 2018. Towards on-farm pig face recognition using convolutional neural networks. Computers in Industry, 98, pp.145-152.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166361517304992

Camerlink, I., Coulange, E., Farish, M., Baxter, E.M. and Turner, S.P., 2018. Facial expression as a potential measure of both intent and emotion. Scientific reports, 8(1), p.17602.
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-35905-3

Vice Chancellors Interdisciplinary Research Challenge Fund Selection Event

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On Monday 25 February, researchers came from across UWE Bristol to present their project ideas as part of the Vice Chancellors Interdisciplinary Research Challenge Fund. This diverse group covered a variety of areas, from the emerging markets in breast milk to reimagining dead celebrities in film, and AI training bots for healthcare professionals.

The Vice Chancellors Interdisciplinary Research Challenge Fund is an opportunity for UWE researchers to seek up to £25,000 funding to develop exciting new research projects with colleagues working in different fields from across this university.

The fund had 83 applications in January, of which 15 were invited to pitch their project for 5 minutes at the event, in the hope of being successful for the competitive Challenge Fund.

Attendees at the event were asked to help decide which projects they thought should be funded, with Research, Strategy and Implementation Group (RSIG) making the final decision.

11 of 15 projects were successful on the day. Information on the 11 successful projects can be found below.

The event was a great opportunity to gain an insight into the quality and breadth of research projects undertaken across UWE Bristol.

Thank you to all who submitted to the fund.

Successful projects:

Using Big Data in Critical Care across all Ages to Improve Clinical Outcome

Researchers: Lyvonne Tume and Elias Pimenidis
This feasibility study will use AI techniques to analyse data from patients in intensive care, focusing on sedation, nutrition and ventilation, to improve treatment.

High Performance Bio-inspired topologically optimized and efficient composite structures

Researchers: Mohammad Fotouhi and David Attwood
By investigating and recreating materials found in the natural world, including shells and Mayfly wings, this project will demonstrate qualities which could solve design problems in aerospace and automotives.

Virtual Maggie: technological opportunities and ethical dilemmas in the development of simulated performers for feature films and television

Researchers: Dominic Lees, Marcus Keppel-Palmer and Thomas Bashford-Rogers
The research team will explore technological advances in visual effects (VFX) which can bring back to life a deceased actor to cast them in a new production, researchers will consider challenges this raises creatively, technologically, ethically and legally.

Printing the Muses. Reimaging digital musical instruments through printing

Researchers: Benedict Gaster and Carinna Parramen
This project will re-imagine musical interfaces through printing tactile surfaces in collaboration with practitioners, to be shared as an open resource on the Internet of Musical Things (IoMT).

Drinking water and airborne microplastics; an unquantified health risk

Researchers: Ben Williams, Stephanie Sargeant, Lisa Mol, Tim Cox, Darren Reynolds, Enda Hayes, Gillian Clayton and Kathryn Lamb-Riddell
As one of the larger research teams that pitched for funding, this project will develop a standardised methodology for collecting and evaluating microplastics in drinking water and the air, in order to develop policy around ‘safe’ limits.

From Utility to Social Entity Exploring emotive interaction between AI training bots and health care professionals

Researchers: Rik Lander, Cristina Costa, Jun Hong, Luke Rudge and Gary Christopher
Experimenting with two versions of an AI training bot, this project aimed at healthcare professionals, will look to see how emotions triggered by user interactions with a ‘relatable’ entity enhance learning.

Human Centred Design, AI & Legal Services

Researchers: Dagmar Steffens, Jo Hare and Paul Matthews
By exploring the opportunities that LegalTech software can offer Bristol’s legal sector, this research aims to create a demonstrator to see how companies can integrate next generation services into their business models.

Nurture Commodified: Women as Workers & Women as Carers

Researchers: Sally Dowling, Michal Nahman and Susan Newman
Focusing on the trade between Bangalore and Australia, this study into commercial and non-commercial breastmilk provision aims to understand the impact on the women involved.

An investigation into the effects of cognitively demanding tasks on eye saccade patterns in the context of the early detection of neurodegenerative disease

Researchers: Wenhao Zhang, Lili Tao, Melvyn Smith, Myra Conway and Nancy Zook
With the intention of aiding early diagnosis which could prevent or reduce the impact of dementia with the help of machine vision and learning, the researchers are aiming to develop and test an eye imaging system to track eye movement patterns.

Waste = Resource Bioelectrochemical filters for clean electricity and resource recovery as fertiliser

Researchers: Iwona Gajda, Jiseon You, Tosin Obata, Robin Thorn and Neil Willey
This research project will take urine and transform it through the use of a microbial fuel cell into catholyte, a liquid which could potentially be used as an herbicide/fertiliser in hydroponics.

Immersive inquiry for architectural site analysis of acoustic ecology

Researchers: Luke Reed and Merate Barakat    
By using virtual reality to prototype a system, this project will help architects to understand the acoustic considerations of a site when in the early stages of design.  

Plants grown from seeds that orbited earth to go on show at national event

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Tomato and rocket plants grown at the University of the West of England (UWE Bristol) from seeds that were taken into space in a rocket and orbited the earth, are to feature as part of a research event in London in January 2018 that will bring together leading experts on radiation.

The event in Westminster from 15-17 January 2018, will display findings from a national consortium involved in the UK-wide £5.6m Radioactivity and The Environment (RATE) project. Its aim is to determine how best to safeguard human health from releases of radioactivity from nuclear power plants or nuclear waste repositories.

UWE Bristol is part of the TREE consortium, which won the THE Research Project of the year award in 2016, and will display the plants grown from the seeds as part of its exhibit.

The rocket seeds were sent up with astronauts in a Soyuz space rocket as part of a collaboration between the European Space Agency and the Royal Horticultural Society. They were kept in the International Space Station where British astronaut Tim Peake monitored them for six months. During that time, the seeds were exposed to radiation from cosmic rays that exist in space.

After they were returned to earth in June 2016, UWE Bristol PhD student Nicol Caplin from the Faculty of Health and Applied Sciences conducted experiments on the rocket seeds. The objective is to determine the effects of radiation on plant development and whether the seeds ‘remember’ their time orbiting earth and therefore change their growth in response to stressful conditions.

After planting the rocket seeds in early 2017, the University also acquired some tomato seeds in November 2017 that had been taken up to space by the Canadian Space Agency.

Findings from the UWE Bristol tests on both sets of seeds are expected to be revealed in spring 2018.

Professor Neil Willey, who is overseeing the project, said, “The dose of radiation the seeds were exposed to in space is eqivalent to the levels found in some parts of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. As part of our overall research on how radiation affects plants, we wanted to test the seeds in a controlled environment.”

Professor Willey, who is one of the world’s leading experts on the effects of radiation on plants, is one of many researchers involved in the RATE project. “The building of a new generation of nuclear power stations, and the fact that the UK does not have a permanent nuclear waste repository led to this project,” said Professor Willey.

RATE involves three consortia, each examining different parts of the environment such as rocks, sediments and wildlife, which could be affected by increased radiation levels. UWE Bristol researchers are focusing their work on plant species, and have grown plants in the laboratory after applying the same levels of radiation as in Chernobyl. “The problem with a lot of data from Chernobyl is that scientists take individual plant samples and make measurements, but they have no idea what happens to them over several generations under controlled conditions. So we have applied Chernobyl levels of radiation over multiple generations of plants and followed what has happened,” said Professor Willey.

Based on their research, Professor Willey said he and colleagues believe that current reference levels of radiation stipulated by the regulator, in other words the amount of exposure there needs to be before the environmental regulator has to start investigating, do not need to be modified.

The London event for goverment, regulators and industry is organised by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC).

Commuting has Multiple Impacts on Employee Wellbeing

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Blog originally posted on www.whatworkswellbeing.org. 

A study of Commuting and Wellbeing undertaken by Dr Kiron Chatterjee and Dr Ben Clark of the Centre for Transport & Society at the University of the West of England (UWE Bristol) shows how different modes of transport for commuting affect our wellbeing.   

Many of us spend longer commuting to work than we would like and find our journeys stressful, but how detrimental is commuting to our wellbeing?

The journey to and from work is a routine activity undertaken on about 160 days of the year by those who are full-time employed in England. The average one-way commute time is 30 minutes, hence commuting consumes about one hour per day for the average commuter. However, one in seven travellers has a commute time of one hour or more, spending at least two hours per day going to and from work.

lyon-cycle-laneThe impact of this travelling on our wellbeing has been studied before, but results have been inconclusive and we do not have a complete picture of how commuting affects different aspects of wellbeing.

Chatterjee and Clark’s study, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), took advantage of Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study, which tracks the lives of a large, representative sample of households in England. The data set allowed them to examine how changes in different aspects of wellbeing from one year to the next were related to changing commuting circumstances for more than 26,000 workers in England over a five-year period.

As set out in their summary report, they found that, all else being equal, every extra minute of commuting time reduces job satisfaction, reduces leisure time satisfaction, increases strain in people’s lives and worsens mental health.

Job satisfaction (as measured on a 7-point scale) declines with commute time (the exception being the small proportion of workers with extreme commutes of over 90 minutes each way)

The effects of commuting on employee wellbeing were found to vary depending on the mode of transport used to get to work:

  1. Those who walk or cycle to work do not report reductions in leisure time satisfaction in the same way as other commuters, even with the same duration of commute. Presumably, active commuting is seen as a beneficial use of time.
  2. Bus commuters feel the negative impacts of longer journey times more strongly than users of other modes of transport. This could relate to the complexity of longer journeys by bus.
  3. Meanwhile, longer duration commutes by rail are associated with less strain than shorter commutes by rail. The researchers believe this is explained by those on longer train journeys being more likely to get a seat and to have comfortable conditions to relax or even to work.
  4. Those who work from home are found to have higher job satisfaction and leisure time satisfaction, but working from home is clearly not possible for everyone on a daily basis.

Their findings have particularly important implications for employers.  An additional 20 minutes of commuting each day was found (on average) to have the equivalent effect on job satisfaction as a 19% reduction in income – this is a loss of £4,080 per annum for someone earning £21,600 (the median value for our sample).  They found a gender difference for this result with longer commute times having a more negative impact on women’s job satisfaction than men’s. This is likely to be related to the greater household and family responsibilities that women tend to have. They also found that employees with longer commute times are more likely to change job, and this has implications for employee retention.

The overall message for employers is that job satisfaction can be improved if workers have opportunities to reduce their time spent commuting, to work from home, and/or to walk or cycle to work – such commuting opportunities are likely to be good news for employee wellbeing and retention and hence reduce costs to businesses.

Whilst Chatterjee and Clark found that longer commute times have adverse wellbeing effects for job satisfaction, and even more markedly for leisure time satisfaction, they were not found to have a large impact on life satisfaction overall. Their analysis showed that this is because longer commute times are taken on for jobs which provide higher salaries and other benefits which serve to increase life satisfaction.

This does not mean that the negative wellbeing impacts of longer commutes can be disregarded. It is important to recognise the negative impacts on job satisfaction, leisure time satisfaction and mental health. People are only likely to continue to accept that a long commute is a price to pay if it is unavoidable and a social norm.

The Commuting & Wellbeing study was funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) (Grant Number ES/N012429/1). The project was led by Dr Kiron Chatterjee at the University of the West of England (UWE Bristol) and ran for eighteen months from February 2016 to July 2017. A summary report from the study is available at https://travelbehaviour.com/outputs-commuting-wellbeing/