Football Fans, Policing and Article 5

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In 2015, 10 Bristol City Football Club (BCFC) fans travelled independently to Birmingham to watch a game of football. On arrival, West Midlands Police (WMP) had identified them as ‘known hooligans.’ They were surrounded and escorted back to the train station where they were told to leave the city. The police relied on ‘dispersal powers’ vested to them under s 35 Anti-Social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014. This gives a constable in uniform the authority to direct a person to leave an area if s/he has reasonable grounds to suspect that the individuals behaviour ‘has contributed or is likely to contribute to members of the public being harassed, alarmed or distressed or, crime or disorder in the locality’. The 2014 introduction of this legislation replaced s 27 Violent Crime Reduction Act 2006, which in similar fashion also authorised a constable to ‘disperse’ provided disorder, or potential disorder, was alcohol related.

As the statement from the BCFC Supporters Club and Trust outlines, the 10 BCFC spectators always maintained that they had not, or had no intention, to partake in any disorder. They claimed they had been ‘falsely imprisoned’ on their ‘escort’ back to the station: arguably a breach of Article 5 of the European Convention on Human Rights (Right to Liberty). Indeed, a constable may inform the individual/s to leave via a route if s/he wishes, but the legislation mentions nothing with regards to an ‘escort.’ That being said, escorts/containment can be justified if it is to ‘prevent and imminent breach of the peace.’ What was also slightly unusual regarding this case is that a serving police officer with Avon and Somerset Constabulary had agreed to be a witness in court in support of the 10 BCFC spectators. Nevertheless, this day did not happen as 24 hours prior to the court date, WMP offered to ‘settle’ out of court.

Indeed, the use of ‘dispersals’ amongst football fans has been a cause of concern amongst some academics and the Football Supporters Association for some time. In 2008, a number of Stoke City supporters visiting Manchester were escorted out of a pub, placed on buses and driven ‘home’ under the old s 27 powers. In total, Greater Manchester Police agreed an out of court settlement totalling around £200,000. Regarding the newer powers under s 35, a mini-bus carrying Wrexham supporters was stopped by Humberside Constabulary whom ordered to bus to turn around and return to Wrexham. The issue here, was that the police had used the powers in a blanket manner in ordering the mini-bus and all its passengers to return, as opposed to carrying out individual assessments. This led to a successful challenge in court from the Wrexham spectators whom received compensation.

What this demonstrates, is that the legislation can, and has, been used in an indiscriminate and often overzealous manner towards to fans of football, often without any real evidence as to why it is believed they pose a risk to disorder and arguably, and without any consideration towards there Article 5 obligations. Indeed, there is arguably a culture of policing towards football that requires change. A 2018 article by Dr James Hoggett and then Chief Superintendent Owen West of West Yorkshire Police advocate the use of Police Liaison Teams (PLTs) within football policing, rather than the use of the traditional ‘command and control’ approach. Common in the use of protests, PLTs have the ability to better read situations and ensure there are no unnecessary interventions from officers who may perceive a situation to be disorderly. For the authors however, the biggest barrier in adopting this style of approach to football is reluctance from many police officers themselves.

Perhaps indicative of this is the planned operation for the game between Portsmouth and Southampton on Tuesday 24th September 2019. Whilst in no doubt that this is a game that will be full of high emotions due to its ‘derby’ nature, a statement from the Commander overseeing the event has outlined that to ‘keep people safe’ help will be drawn in from ‘the dog units, the mounted section, roads policing, public order teams, drones and the use of the National Police Air Service.’ Clearly, an expensive use of resources. It has been repeated several times that on the face of it, football is changing for the better. It is important to note for the balance of fairness and relating back to WMP, that, to quote Amanda Jacks at the Football Supporters Association, ‘WMP did not have the best of reputations but in recent years, they’ve worked extremely hard and in my view, are one of the most progressive forces in the country.’ Perhaps, and with many things in life, it is a case of learning from mistakes, albeit expensive mistakes. Nevertheless, it is the often over-zealous and outdated mind set of many in authority that holds back a degree of change that is needed.

Matthew Hall

On the Basis of the 17 December 2018 Request of Consultations by the EU with Korea Regarding the Implementation of the Sustainable Development Commitments under the EU-Korea Trade Agreement, Discuss how Labour Standards can Be Maintained via Free Trade Agreements

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This post (edited for publication) is published on our blog as part of a series of work produced by students for assessment within the module ‘Public International Law’. Following the blogging success over the last couple of years, we decided to publish our students’ excellent work in this area again in this way. The module is an option in the second year of Bristol Law School’s LLB programme. It continues to be led by Associate Professor Dr Noëlle Quénivet. Using innovative learning and teaching methods, Noëlle developed this module to include the use of online portfolios within a partly student led curriculum. The posts in this series show the outstanding research and analytical abilities of students on our programmes. Views expressed in this blog post are those of the author only who consents to the publication.

By Anita Dangova

Introduction

The social ambition of the European Union to enforce and maintain sustainable development commitments has led to a radical increase of the incorporation of the International Labour Organisation’s (ILO) labour standard conventions into European Union (EU) free trade agreements (FTAs) with third parties over the past two decades (at 265). In this blog post, I will show that labour standards can be effectively maintained via FTAs through a system of consultative measures. Although such a system can be criticised for being a ‘soft’ mechanism of dispute settlement it has proven successful to enforce labour standards agreed upon in FTAs between the EU and States.  Using the recent consultations request by the EU regarding the failure of implementation of sustainable development provisions by South Korea as a case-study, I will particularly highlight how this soft resolution mechanism works with developed and developing states.

The EU’s Approach to Resolving Disputes

The EU ensures that disputes related to maintaining the ILO’s labour standard conventions in its FTAs are resolved through a cooperative and soft dispute resolution mechanism (Postnikov & Bastiaens, ‘Does Dialogue Work? The Effectiveness of Labor Standards in EU Preferential Trade Agreements’ (2014) 21 JERR 923, 925). This stands in contrast to the direct sanctions system used by the US as, in case of a dispute between the EU and a non-member state regarding failure to apply an FTA’s labour standards provisions, consultations are usually a pre-condition (Postnikov & Bastiaens). The table below explains the EU’s idea of resolving a dispute in a fair, friendly and equal-party manner by consultations, and not sanctions. That is why, in my opinion, the FTAs’ consultations system can be effective in maintaining labour standards’ provisions.

Why consultations?
They are known as means of peaceful dispute settlement, as well as a tool towards a proactive work of both the parties (see Peters, ‘International Dispute Settlement: A Network of Cooperational Duties’
(2003) 14(1) EJIL 1, 2).
The consultative measures encourage a flexible resolution process,
where parties have control over the procedure, being able to set the rules,
manage the time and conduct in a way they deem most appropriate (at 9).
However, as stated by the International Court of Justice, consultations are to be conducted by the parties in a meaningful way with a view to agreeing in good faith (para 85).
Therefore, they are not used as a tool of showing the power of one party, for example the EU, over a weaker party, for instance South Korea. 
This method means that  the dispute is explored within its context.
This ensures that the parties are more likely to comply with the relevant agreement in pursuing the common goals of the parties. 

© Anita Dangova

How Does that Work with Developed States? 

A good example to show how such a mechanism works is the recent discussions held in the framework of the EU-South Korea bilateral FTA. Indeed, a recent consultations request was made by the EU after establishing that Korea had failed to ratify the ILO conventions regarding the right of freedom of association and collective bargaining.  Under article 14.3(1) of the FTA, either party can commence consultations, which are to be conducted in good faith and ‘with the aim of reaching mutually agreed solution’, when there is an issue regarding the implementation of the ILO labour standards, as defined under Chapter 13. Under article 14.4, unsuccessful consultations would initiate an arbitration procedure, leading to further costs, delay of settlement and intensified pressure. These consequences, therefore, can encourage Korea to ‘change its behaviour’ at the consultations, by acting in a meaningful way and eventually ratifying the labour standards, which the State is legally bound by the agreement to do. 

Another example is the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) agreement under which matters, related to the implementation of labour standards, can be resolved with a recourse to consultations’ request, with the objective to reach a ‘mutually satisfactory resolution’ (article 23. 11). Therefore, we can see that the EU FTAs generally encourage maintenance of the labour standards provisions through soft dispute settlement mechanism, incorporating consultations. This additionally shows that the mechanism’s effectiveness in encouraging developed states to ratify the labour provisions, which they agreed to be bound by, is considerably recognised both in the law and in practice. 

What about Developing States?

Under article 50 of the Cotonou Agreement, the parties, i.e. the EU and African, Caribbean and Pacific countries, reaffirm their commitment to enforce the application of five core ILO labour standards conventions (Abolition of Forced Labour; Freedom of Association; Collective Bargaining; No Discrimination; Abolition of Child Labour.) The first step of ensuring the effective implementation of article 50 is to conduct a political dialogue (article 8). This again reflects the EU’s idea of soft, yet effective, cooperation. When all options of dialogue are exhausted, the parties can commence diplomatic consultations (article 96(2)(a)). The provision expressly states that the consultations shall be conducted in a manner, appropriate to find a solution. In case of a failure to find a solution, ‘appropriate measures‘, such as compensation, can be taken. Aware of the subsequent pressure, which will be caused by those measures, the developing states will seek to avoid paying compensation and will thus after the consultations be incentivised to ratify the relevant labour standard conventions. That is why it can be argued that the consultations mechanism, adopted by the FTAs, is an effective way of maintaining labour standards in developing states. 

The first stage (at 25) of labour standards dispute settlement is the following:                  

Statistics Never Lie 

© Anita Dangova (based on information provided in Reich, The Effectiveness of the WTO Dispute Settlement System: A Statistical Analysis, EUI Working Papers, Law 2017/11)

To assess the effectiveness of consultations more generally we can consider the WTO’s dispute resolution system as set out in article 4 of the Dispute Settlement Understanding. In case of a dispute between two member states, either one is capable of initiating a consultations request.  Between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2016, the system has dealt with 573 requests for consultations. Out of this number, it has issued about 350 mutually agreed dispute settlement decisions (see Reich, The Effectiveness of the WTO Dispute Settlement System: A Statistical Analysis, EUI Working Papers, Law 2017/11, at 4). Therefore, this constitutes a strong evidence that consultations are generally an effective way of settling disputes in the field of economic law.  

Conclusion

In this blog post I have argued that the FTA consultations mechanism is an effective way of ensuring the implementation of labour standard commitments, based on the EU soft consultative dispute resolution system. I have, furthermore, showed that this system works with developing and developed states, basing my analysis on examples such as the Cotonou, EU-South Korea and CETA agreements. 

Dr. Young presents Interdisciplinary Research on Organized Crime Control to the Ministry of National Security, Jamaica

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By Mary Alice Young:

Dr. Mary Alice Young (Law) and Dr. Michael Woodiwiss (History) are in Jamaica today to conduct a series of evidence-informed research presentations with members of the Jamaican law enforcement and policy making communities (the project has been fully funded by ACE).

Based on empirical research carried out in January 2018 in Kingston (one week before Jamaica’s government declared a State of Emergency in Montego Bay due to a rise in firearm deaths), the two UWE staff will present their research findings to law enforcement officers in the Jamaica Constabulary Force, and also in separate meetings to ministers from the Ministry of National Security.

They will also be presenting a preliminary paper for consultation, with a view to informing future policy making in the area of organized crime control in small island and developing states.

Professor Chinkin gives the Annual Lecture of the Welsh Institute for International Affairs (co-sponsored by UWE)

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By Jackie Jones:

The Annual Lecture of the Legal Affairs Committee of the Welsh Centre for International Affairs took place on 3rd May 2018, co-sponsored this year by the Law School. Professor Christine Chinkin, Director of the Institute for Gender, Peace and Security at the LSE, spoke about the Council of Europe Istanbul Convention: the negotiations, the sticking points and the value added of the newest regional convention to eliminate violence against women and girls. She also mentioned the ongoing campaign to pass a UN convention to eliminate violence against women and girls, which Prof Jackie Jones is heavily involved in – having just published a co-edited book making the legal case for a new treaty (with Prof Rashida Manjoo). Jeremy Miles, AM, Counsel General for Wales, was present to listen to the added value for Wales outlined by Prof Jones – lobbying to encourage Wales to pass legislation complying with the provisions of the Istanbul Convention. Wales is a world leader in eliminating violence against women, passing world-first legislation in 2015 and appointing National Advisors to eliminate violence against women. The entire lecture was recorded by BBC Radio.

Professor Chinken speaking next to WCIA banner

Dr. Philippe Karpe attends Centre for Applied Legal Research as Visiting Scholar

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By Noelle Quenivet:

Between 10 February and 10 March 2018 the Centre for Applied Legal Research hosted Dr Philippe Karpe as Visiting Scholar. Dr Philippe Karpe is a senior legal researcher and international expert working for CIRAD, a French agricultural research and international cooperation state organization working for the sustainable development of tropical and Mediterranean regions. Worldwide there are 850 CIRAD researchers assigned in 40 countries involved in an array of projects. Dr Karpe is currently posted in Nairobi, Kenya. Invited by the International Law and Human Rights Unit and the Environmental Law Research Unit it was a pleasure to have him with us. Dr. Karpe took part in a wide range of teaching and scholarly activities offered by the Bristol Law School, as well as pursuing his own research on indigenous people and the management of natural resources.

By education Dr Karpe is a public international lawyer who studied at the universities of Nancy, Paris 10 and Strasbourg in France and holds a ‘habilitation à la direction de recherche’ (Accreditation to supervise research) – a French post-doctoral degree allowing him to supervise PhD students. Besides supervising PhD candidates at CIRAD he also teaches at the universities of Strasbourg (France) and Hokkaido (Japan). The bulk of his work however consists in planning and running projects with and for international organisations (eg United Nations Development Programme-UNDP, World Bank), NGOs (eg Rainforest Foundation Norway, Organisation des Nations Autochtones de Guyane-ONAG) and other stakeholders applying his expertise on governance and rule of law, including indigenous peoples’ rights (general and particular rights, especially land rights, forest’s and carbon’s rights, forest users’ rights, women’s rights), socio-environmental safeguards, sustainable forest management, rural and forest land tenure (including for the implementation of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance on Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security-VGGT), participative management of lands (including the use of artificial intelligence), participative mapping, institutional arrangements and stakeholder commitments (civil society, forest communities, etc.).

Dr Karpe led workshops on three modules (‘Natural Resources’, ‘Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility’ and ‘European Environmental Law and Policy’) offered on our LLM programmes. In each of these modules he shared with the students his extensive knowledge and practical expertise in the relevant fields. He brought law to life by using concrete legal problems he had been confronted with in his own field work.

For example, in the module ‘Natural Resources’ led by Prof Jona Razzaque Dr Karpe produced real forest legal texts that were enacted by regional, national and local public authorities. The students could thus see how forests are protected (or not). This helped the students to better understand the practical application of the law as well as its (sometimes unintended) consequences on local populations.

In the module ‘Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility’ the students were asked to engage in a discussion on ethical aspects of activities carried out by multinational enterprises using real contracts that were agreed upon between indigenous people and organisations. Passionate discussions in this workshop run by Dr Karpe and Dr Sabine Hassler on (for example) the protection of traditional knowledge in India and the protection of the intellectual property rights of the indigenous peoples ensued.

This inquisitive and practice-oriented type of engaging with the students was again displayed in the workshop on the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in the module ‘European Environmental Law and Policy’. Together with the module leader, Christian Dadomo, Dr Karpe challenged the students to analyse the current CAP reform and its interface with the environment and, more largely, the future shape of the society. He notably discussed with the students the negative and positive connections between agriculture, the society and the environment (eg pollution, deforestation, drying up of rivers, etc) and how the reform of the CAP deals with these issues. Dr Karpe’s visit was a great asset to our practice-led and student-centred teaching culture on the LLM programme at UWE.

Throughout his stay at UWE Dr Karpe also took the opportunity to attend a number of external engagement events organised by CALR such as the Brexit and Corruption talk by Dr Lorenzo Pasculli and the Brexit and Trade Relations panel discussion. As a scholar working often far away from European legal issues he particularly enjoyed this insight into one of the most commonly debated issue in the UK: the withdrawal of the UK from the European Union. In this context, he sincerely enjoyed the great variety and quality of the different UWE’s opportunities to develop and enrich the knowledge on many scientific and political vital present concerns.

Dr Karpe had the opportunity to deepen his present academic research especially on Harmony with Nature, the Commons, the indigenous peoples and the farmers by collecting many references and academic articles on the UWE’s virtual library and by daily discussions with colleagues on a variety of topics, some of them relating to research methods and methodology (eg epistemology, social-legal studies and critical legal studies). Furthermore his stay at UWE gave him the opportunity to consider some new academic concerns such as conflict, war and the humanitarian legal framework.

On two occasions Dr Karpe presented his work to UWE staff and students. At a first event he shared with us his practice-based research and at a second reflected upon his work as a lawyer in the field. A roundtable on ‘The Future of the Commons’ was organised on 28 February 2018 to discuss the definition of the concept of the ‘Commons’ and develop the ‘Commons Thinking’. Dr Karpe’s intervention focused on his own experience of the commons in the African context.

For example he was once confronted with what appeared to be an odd situation in a village. The local population did not seem to be related or linked, the concept of society did not seem to apply either and it appeared that each person was working for him/herself. A positive, classic lawyer would have undoubtedly failed to realise that there was something beyond that and that in fact these individuals were connected by a common, shared ‘space’. Dr Karpe then questioned whether the concept of the commons was an answer to this practical/technical problem which could be turned into a political concern. He posited that current values do not conform to aspirations of justice and that contemporary laws do not help support, protect and promote the life of individuals who live in such a situation. Yet, as a lawyer, his job is to establish justice between people and to find solutions to concrete technical as well as political problems. Thus in his view the concept of the Commons appear to be the most suitable tool. However, when trying to write the law of the Commons the lawyer faces the harsh reality of having to acknowledge that law simply is not the most appropriate tool. For example, law is usually split in different areas such as contract law, family law, property law, etc and yet the Commons transcend these separations. Also the Commons are a ‘space for development’ as they create opportunities for changes and evolution. This all makes it difficult to freeze the Commons into law.

Dr Karpe argued that for him it was crucial that human rights be at the centre of all these activities. Law should be created around human rights. He also challenged the vertical relationship of law whereby constitutional law sits at the top of the hierarchy of any national legal system. Whilst he admitted that this might sound revolutionary as lawyers struggle to understand law in anything but hierarchical terms and categories he emphasised that only a horizontal understanding of the law could avoid corrupting the Commons. As he explained his support for the Commons he however warned that the concept of the Commons might in specific contexts be used as a new form of colonialism enabling State and organisations, for example to deny rights to indigenous people on the basis that under the principle of non-discrimination and shared access to resources no special rights should be given to them.

Last but certainly not least Dr Karpe gave a talk entitled ‘Has the Wandering Lawyer Reached his Destination? – The Adventures of a Lawyer Working in the Field’ which gave him the opportunity to reflect on his work. It was an enlightening talk as Dr Karpe shared with us over 25 years of research in Cameroon, the Central Republic of Africa, Madagascar, Democratic Republic in Congo, Gabon, etc. He kicked off this presentation by asking ‘What am I? What is my purpose as a lawyer?’. Looking at the type of jobs he usually carries out he acknowledged that his work tends to touch upon a range of topics (eg weddings, contracts, etc) though it does focus on forestry. Yet, as a human being he questions what his real role is. For him, he should be promoting justice and more specifically social justice.

As a result he does not question the abstract internal coherence of the texts, the content of texts or their effectiveness and efficiency as such. Rather, these are only steps in this research work. The basic research question is ‘under which conditions may the lawyer contribute to improving the living conditions of the local population?’. The objective is thus to understand how law can contribute to improving the living conditions and ensure the protection of a certain idea of a community of life. For this, four assumptions must be made: 1) laws and rules may contribute to social change and lawyers are thus useful; 2) laws and rules have a political function; 3) there is a community of life and 4) the function of laws and rules is to guarantee social peace. Likewise Dr Karpe conceded that there were a number of challenges: 1) working with disadvantageous groups such as indigenous people, rural women, etc; 2) the status of users’ rights in developing countries and 3) the status of peasants. All these challenges relate to various aspects of vulnerability and deprivation of rights. With this in mind the lawyer must think about how he can have a positive impact on society.

In Dr Karpe’s eyes the most suitable way to understand societies and to then be in a position to support them is to conduct extensive research in the field. This means using involved, immersed and applied research techniques so that a concrete and continuous contact with the relevant people can be established.

Dr Karpe also stressed that the nature of the field obliges all actors to adopt an interdisciplinary approach and so he works with economists, anthropologists, biologists, pharmacologists, etc, bearing in mind that each person brings his/her own views and perceptions of the situation and that all these views as well as methodologies need to be integrated into one’s work. Does that mean that the lawyer disappears? Dr Karpe stressed he remains a positive lawyer (one that is trying to find the best solution to a problem that affects people), a humanist (there is no doubt a need for empathy and humility in these circumstances) and a ‘questionnaire’ (a person who asks questions) and thus a ‘wandering lawyer’. In his opinion this ‘wandering lawyer’ has a fundamental political and moral obligation to remember, think, defend and realise the key destiny of a lawyer: social justice. As a result he/she must revise his/her vision of the law, its essence, substance and form. Four main research themes derive from this stance towards law and the role of the lawyer: 1) the commons, the harmony between nature, humanity and values (justice); 2) the nature and the content of the law (juridicity); 3) the tools for implementing the law and 4) the methodologies of knowledge of law.

Dr Karpe presented some of the results of his reflection, explaining that the law should not be in the form of specific provisions, that the new ‘Common Law’ should correspond to a right of communion, a transcendental right and that the new Common Law must correspond to an idea, that of a community of life. Under the Common Law individuals enjoy the same rights and there is no hierarchy of rights. That being established, Dr Karpe questioned the way law is created, articulating the idea that law is often crafted by a certain type of persons for a certain type of person and for a specific objective and that consequently law may not be really that ‘common’ in fact.

As Dr Karpe left UWE he had made contact with many colleagues in the Bristol Law School and hoped to be able to involve these colleagues in his work. He proposed to establish an opened think-thank on the Commons, the Wandering Lawyer, Law and the Juridicity, named: “the Rainbow Team”. Discussions were also had about future collaboration notably in the form of common projects relating to the protection of the environment, biodiversity and conflict. It was with regret that we had to let Dr Karpe go back to his work as it was such a pleasure to talk to him on a variety of topics.

 

Guest Talk – Dr Jane Rooney: Article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights in Armed Conflict

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By Noelle Quenivet:

The International Law and Human Rights Unit of the Bristol Law School welcomed on 14 March 2018 Dr. Jane Rooney, Lecturer at the University of Bristol, who presented a paper on ‘Article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights in Armed Conflict’. Dr. Rooney began by explaining that she was challenging the commonly held view that human rights law (and the European Convention on Human Rights more particularly), subject States to a higher threshold than international humanitarian law.

Continue reading “Guest Talk – Dr Jane Rooney: Article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights in Armed Conflict”

Dr. Tom Smith gives evidence to the Justice Parliamentary Select Committee

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Dr. Tom Smith submitted written evidence to the Justice Parliamentary Select Committee on March 31st, regarding their inquiry into issues with criminal disclosure.

His submission drew on research he conducted with Emeritus Professor Ed Cape regarding pre-trial detention in England and Wales (link below):

http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/28291

In his submission, he argues that evidence from the research suggested defence lawyers have significant issues accessing full and timely disclosure prior to bail hearings in criminal courts. The evidence has now been published, and is accessible here:

http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/justice-committee/disclosure-of-evidence-in-criminal-cases/written/80714.html

Law Student Research Report on Rape and Sexual Assault

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On 20th March, a student authored research report was presented to Rowan Miller, who is CEO of SARSAS (Somerset & Avon Rape and Sexual Abuse Support). The authors are all undergraduates on the LL.B Sexual Offences and Offending: Criminal Justice Responses module. Each year, student volunteers from the module research and write a report for SARSAS staff which explains topical legal policy issues and reforms. During the presentation, Rowan noted how useful and impactful the report will be for her staff and that previous research reports had been widely read by people from across the sector.

The report is an excellent example of how students, working with academic colleagues, can engage with the world outside of UWE and apply specialist, socially useful knowledge to the work of local organisations.

The report authors are: Karishma Boodhun, Charlie Ellis, Abigail Laborero, Hayley Lewis, Molly Mackenzie, Momin Mohamed and Annabelle White.

The report was edited and fact checked by Phil Rumney, Ed Johnston and Anneleise Williams.

Fixing a Hole? Potential Solutions to the Problem of Disclosure

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A new article by Dr Tom Smith and Dr Ed Johnston, both of UWE Law School, has been published in the The Justice Gap.

In the wake of the collapsed cases of Liam Allan and others in late 2017, the House of Commons’ Justice Select Committee has launched an inquiry into the ‘extensive issues’ with criminal disclosure. They are currently inviting written evidence on this issue. One of the central questions the Committee is asking is as follows: Are the current policies, rules and procedures satisfactory to enable appropriate disclosure of evidence and support the defendant’s right to a fair trial?

In our view, they are not. Tom Smith and Ed Johnston look at potential solutions to the disclosure scandal.

The full article is found here.